Dutch prosecutors have accused Swiss-based oil-trading company Trafigura of dumping toxic residue from its transportation tanks in the Ivory Coast in 2006.
Trafigura is being charged with breaking Dutch export and environmental laws and forging official documents.
A UN report published last September found “strong” evidence that the hazardous waste caused at least 15 deaths and several hospitalisations.
Amsterdam Port Services has also been charged with not preventing the export of dangerous waste from the Netherlands.
In an out-of-court settlement last September, the company agreed to pay $45m to 30,000 people affected by the waste, in addition to the $200m it paid to the Ivorian Government in 2007.